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Sacroiliac joint dysfunction

I see many patients who come into my office with an MRI that shows something wrong or off in their sacroiliac joint or joints and a compliant that they have low back pain. Some will tell me that based on their MRI, their doctors are confirming that the primary source of their low back pain is their sacroiliac joint. Further, the patient has been told to strongly consider a surgical recommendation to spinal fusion sacroiliac joint dysfunction. For many patients, this may have been the same doctor who had taken them through a course of conservative treatments. These treatments may have included long bouts with anti-inflammatory medications, back braces, physical therapy, and cortisone injections.

However, many doctors do not explore the possibility the spinal ligament laxity is the cause of the patient’s problems. Ligaments and tendons are weakened by age, overuse syndrome, or injury. In the sacroiliac joint, because it supports the torso and has large nerves running through it all the way to the feet, these injuries to the sacroiliac ligaments can mimic other injuries such as disc herniation and lead to an incorrect diagnosis which could lead to an unnecessary lower back surgery.

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is the improper movement of the joints at the bottom of the spine that connect the sacrum to the pelvis. It may be caused by spinal instability which is caused by damaged ligaments. It can result in pain in the low back and legs, or inflammation of the joints known as sacroiliitis.

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction treatments - Platelet-rich plasma injections

The challenges of diagnosis and management of Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: “Although Sacroiliac joint dysfunction accounts for a large portion of chronic low back pain prevalence, it is often overlooked or under diagnosed and subsequently under treated. “

The challenges of diagnosis and management of Sacroiliac joint dysfunction was the topic of an October 2021 paper. (1) Here the study authors wrote:

“Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain is one of the most common causes of low back pain, accounting for 15 to 30% of all cases. Although Sacroiliac joint dysfunction accounts for a large portion of chronic low back pain prevalence, it is often overlooked or under diagnosed and subsequently under treated.”

Next the authors offered guidelines to their fellow practitioners:

“The practitioner must focus on the history, location of pain, observed gait pattern, and perform key points of the physical exam including sacroiliac provocative maneuvers. If the patient exhibits at least three provocative maneuvers (movements that cause pain in the SI joint) then the Sacroiliac joint may be considered as a possible source of pain. Additionally, a thorough review of the imaging should be performed to rule out other etiologies of low back pain. In the absence of any pathognomonic tests or examination findings, diagnostic Sacroiliac joint blocks have evolved as the diagnostic standard.


“The diagnosis of SIJ pain is a multifaceted process that involves a careful assessment including differentiating other pain generators in the region. This involves careful history taking, appropriate physical examination including provocative maneuvers and diagnostic injections. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, long-term solutions may be considered, including recent advances in sacral lateral branch denervation and sacroiliac joint fusion.”

Here the conclusion ended with the possibility of surgical recommendation.

A woman in her early seventies

One of my patients is a woman in her early seventies. She presented with her husband after not one, but two sacral fusions, one on the right and one on the left. You might be appalled if you saw the amount of metal that was used to do the fusion. Huge screws, too. Because of continued pain on the left side, her surgeon wanted her to redo the left fusion. She came to me for advice.

During examination, I pressed on her gluteus muscles, away from the fusion site and she winced in pain. I immediately told her that her pain was not coming from the sacroiliac joint, and that she simply had a strain where the muscles were attached to the pelvis. I asked her if the surgeon actually examined this area and to my astonishment, her answer was, “no”. She and her husband looked like deer in headlights, confused as to what I was telling them. How could her pain not be related to the joint, and the subsequent fusion, when she had surgery for that issue. I told them I was sorry, but the surgery never needed to be done if this is where the pain had been. It took about a half hour for them to digest this information, and we proceeded to inject PRP though the muscles down to the bone interface. We call that the enthesis.

A recent study suggests that sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients do not get treatment relief because they did not have sacroiliac joint dysfunction

How does a patient subsequently get to sacral lateral branch denervation and sacroiliac joint fusion? Typically this occurs because all other treatments have not worked. Why? A recent 2019 study in the Clinical Spine Journal (2) offers the suggestion that sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients do not get treatment relief because they did not have sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This may be somewhat difficult for you to believe because all along you have been told you have sacroiliac joint pain.

Look at what the doctors of this study reported: Confusion and a lot of it. The sacroiliac joint was found to be a rare pain generator (3%-6%) in patients complaining of more than 50% sacroiliac joint region related pain. 

As in our office, many doctors see patients that have pain all over the hip, pelvic, low back, groin regions. The above study reports that incidence of primary sacroiliac joint ranges from 15% to 30%. (In other words 15% to 30% of these people will get a diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction.) When they do not get a diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction, they may get a diagnosis of:

  • pain generated from the lumbar spine, (degenerative disc disease),
  • secondary sacroiliac joint dysfunction, (not the primary cause of their pain and therefore not the primary target)
  • and the hip joint.

When these researchers re-examined these patients, with the goal of proving or disproving sacroiliac joint as the primary cause, what they found after a complete diagnostic workup was:

  • 112 (90%) had lumbar spine pain,
  • 5 (4%) had hip pain,
  • 4 (3%) had primary sacroiliac joint dysfunction pain, and
  • 3 (3%) had an undetermined source of pain upon initial diagnosis.

Patients did not have sacroiliac joint dysfunction as the primary source of their pain. In fact the sacroiliac joint was found to be a rare pain generator (3%-6%) in patients complaining of more than 50% sacroiliac joint region related pain. Pain in the sacroiliac joint area is commonly a referral pain from the lumbar spine (88%-90%).

This is why treatments including the use of cortisone will not work in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The wrong area is getting treated OR the right areas are not getting treated. The right areas may include:

  • The axial low back,
  • buttock/leg region
  • groin/anterior thigh region

A March 2022 (9) study evaluated the effectiveness of intraarticular steroid injections with lateral branch radiofrequency neurotomy for sacroiliac joint  pain. They found both sacroiliac joint  intraarticular steroid injections and sacroiliac joint  lateral branch radiofrequency neurotomy demonstrated significant pain relief for patients with sacroiliac joint  pain. Sacroiliac joint  lateral branch radiofrequency neurotomy provided a longer duration of pain relief (82 days) versus sacroiliac joint  intraarticular steroid injection (38 days).

This is a study from December 2020. The doctors in this study use a much stronger language to describe the increase in the number of SIJ Fusions

This is a study from December 2020. The doctors in this study use a much stronger language to describe the overreliance of SIJ Fusion. The paper was published in the Journal of pain research. (14)

“The sacroiliac joint has been estimated to contribute to pain in as much as 38% of cases of lower back pain. There are no clear diagnostic or treatment pathways. . . “

Here are some of the points provided by this study:

  • “Proposed criteria for diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction can include pain in the area of the sacroiliac joint, reproducible pain with provocative maneuvers, and pain relief with a local anesthetic injection into the SIJ.
  • Conventional non-surgical therapies such as medications, physical therapy, radiofrequency denervation, and direct SI joint injections may have some limited durability in therapeutic benefit. Surgical fixation can be by a lateral or posterior/posterior oblique approach with the literature supporting minimally invasive options for improving pain and function and maintaining a low adverse event profile.
  • SIJ pain is felt to be an underdiagnosed and undertreated element of low back pain. There is an emerging disconnect between the growing incidence of diagnosed SI pathology and underwhelming treatment efficacy of medical treatment. This has led to an increase in SI joint fixation (fusions).”

SI Fusion is probably better than traditional conservative care treatments

An August 2022 study (15) found that: “Among patients meeting diagnostic criteria for SI joint pain and who have not responded to conservative care, minimally invasive SI joint fusion is probably more effective than conservative management for reducing pain and opioid use and improving physical function and Quality of Life.” Also noted from these researchers is that side effects and complications “appear to be higher for minimally invasive SI joint fusion than conservative management through 6 months. Based on evidence from uncontrolled studies, serious adverse effects from minimally invasive SI joint fusion may be higher in usual practice compared to what is reported in trials.”

Neurosurgeons suggest that treatment for sacroiliac joint pain should not include spinal fusion.

This is the title of a paper published in the journal Neurosurgery clinics of North America : “Sacroiliac Fusion: Another “Magic Bullet” Destined for Disrepute.”(16)

This is what the paper says:

“Pain related to joint dysfunction can be treated with joint fusion; this is a long-standing principle of musculoskeletal surgery. However, pain arising from the sacroiliac joint is difficult to diagnose. . . Evidence establishing (successful) outcomes (of spinal fusion) is misleading because of vague diagnostic criteria, flawed methodology, bias, and limited follow-up. Because of nonstandardized indications and historically inferior reconstruction techniques, SI joint fusion should be considered unproven. The indications and procedure in their present form are unlikely to stand up to close scrutiny or weather the test of time.”

There are many people who may disagree that fusion will not help sacroiliac joint pain. Many people do in fact do get pain relief and benefit from surgery. I don;t see this people in my office. I see the people who did not do well after surgery. A December 2019 still asked “What do we know about the biomechanics of the sacroiliac joint and of sacropelvic fixation?” (17)

Here is an explanation of why this surgery may work for some, but may not work for others. “The sacroiliac joint is characterized by a large variability of shape and ranges of motion among individuals. Although the ligament network and the anatomical features strongly limit the joint movements, sacroiliac displacements and rotations are not negligible. 

Currently available treatments for sacroiliac joint dysfunction include physical therapy, steroid injections, Radio-frequency ablation of specific neural structures, and open or minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Several studies reported the clinical outcomes of the different techniques and investigated the biomechanical stability of the relative construct (the construct being the fusion itself), but the effect of sacropelvic fixation techniques on the joint flexibility and on the stress generated into the bone is still unknown. In our opinion, more biomechanical analyses on the behavior of the sacroiliac joint may be performed in order to better predict the risk of failure or instability of the joint.”

Platelet Rich Plasma injections vs cortisone for Sacroiliac Joint Injection

PRP treatments involve collecting a small amount of your blood and spinning it in a centrifuge to separate the platelets from the red cells. The collected platelets are then injected back into the low back area to stimulate healing and regeneration.

Why platelets?

Blood  platelets contain healing agents or “growth factors.” This is what the growth factors do:

  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a protein that helps control cell growth and division, especially blood vessels. When more blood (and the oxygen it carries) is delivered to the site of a wound, there is more healing.
  • Transforming growth factor beta (or TGF-β) is a polypeptide and is important in tissue regeneration.
  • Insulin-like growth factors are signaling agents. They help change the environment of the damaged joint from diseased to healing by “signaling” the immune system to start rebuilding tissue.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein that brings healing oxygen to damaged tissue where blood circulation might be damaged or inadequate.
  • Epidermal growth factor plays a key role in tissue repair mechanisms.

A study published in Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain (3) compared the effectiveness of these two sacroiliac joint injections as a sacroiliac joint dysfunction treatment . These are the paper’s main points:

  • “Despite widespread use of steroids to treat sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain, their duration of pain reduction is short. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can potentially enhance tissue healing and may have a longer-lasting effect on pain.
  • Forty patients with chronic low back pain diagnosed with SIJ pathology were randomly allocated into 2 groups.
    • Group S received methylprednisolone
    • Group P received PRP
  • After treatment:
    • Intensity of pain was significantly lower in the PRP group at 6 weeks  and 3 months as compared to the steroid group.
    • The efficacy of steroid injection was reduced to only 25% at 3 months while it was 90% in the PRP group.
    • A strong association was observed in patients receiving PRP and showing a reduction of pain of more than 50% from baseline. Pain and function scores favored the PRP treatment as well. In the steroid group pain reduction and function improvements were seen up until 4 weeks after treatment and then the effectiveness declined. While the PRP group saw pain and function scores steadily increase at the three month marker.

Conclusion: “The intra-articular PRP injection is an effective treatment modality in low back pain involving SIJ.”

Many do not respond to corticosteroid injections for sacroiliac joint pain

A November 2022 study (10) “Intra-articular or peri-articular corticosteroid injections are often used for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. However, response to these injections is variable and many patients require multiple injections for sustained benefit.” In this study, the researchers aimed to see if they could predict who would respond and who would not respond to sacroiliac joint injections. Who was at risk for not responding as well?

  • Patients with a history of depression and anxiety
  • Older patients

Of note is that the researchers found that the patients who did respond, did not have  clinically significant pain relief scores. The researchers peculated that the study participants did not accurately record perception of success after SIJ injection. The researchers suggest their pain relief should have been greater.

A July 2022 study (8) compared intra-articular sacroiliac joint platelet-rich plasma injections with intra-articular steroids. Subjects who had a positive diagnostic block were randomized to undergo either a fluoroscopically guided intra-articular injection of steroid or a platelet-rich plasma injection. Results: At 1, 3, and 6 months, both groups improved; however, subjects who received steroid injections reported lower pain scores than did subjects who received platelet-rich plasma.

low back sacroiliac joint dysfunction

Nerve blocks do not work for some patients with sacroiliac joint pain. The reason? The patient does not have primary sacroiliac joint dysfunction

I will often receive an email that will describe to me cortisone injections or nerve blocks that did not help the e-mailer with their low back pain. As we have seen in many patients, the hip-spine-sacroiliac joint complex is a challenging one to differentiate where the pain is coming from. Injections into the hip may not provide relief if the pain is in the sacroiliac joint region. Injections into the sacroiliac joint region may not work if the pain is from the hip or groin.

A study in the medical journal Pain Physician (11) looked at various treatment recommendations for patients suffering from sacroiliac joint pain. These treatments incldued burning the nrves, freezing the nerves, applying cortisone and Botox.

The researchers found the following:

  • “The evidence for cooled radiofrequency neurotomy (freezing the nerve) in managing sacroiliac joint pain is fair.
  • The evidence for effectiveness of intraarticular steroid injections is poor.
  • The evidence for periarticular injections of local anesthetic and steroid or botulinum (Botox) toxin is poor.
  • The evidence for effectiveness of conventional radiofrequency neurotomy (burning the nerves) is poor.
  • The evidence for pulsed radiofrequency is poor.”

Why did they find so many poor results? The chances are the patient did not have sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

Let’s look at another study. This time from June 2017 in the journal Medicine.(12) In this research, doctors from Korea investigated the degree of pain reduction following intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency stimulation of the sacroiliac joint in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain that had not responded to corticosteroid injection.

These research too found disappointing results:

  • Intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency stimulation of the sacroiliac joint was not successful in most patients (80% of all patients). Based on our results, we cannot recommend this procedure to patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain that was unresponsive to corticosteroid injection.

Here is where treatments that are not helping the sacroiliac joint can become dangerous. How so? Because they will lead to a surgery that will not work either.

This was also suggested by a late 2019 study.(13)

  • The rationale for SI joint fusion is to relieve pain created by the movement of a joint through the removal of movement by arthrodesis (fusion) of the joint space. Only few comparative studies of percutaneous SI joint fusion and denervation have been reported, and they had limited clinical evidence.

In our office, we do not consider PRP a one shot treatment.

Giving another opinion is a November 2021 (4) paper. Here doctors compared outcomes with a fluoroscopically-guided intra-articular injection of steroid or platelet rich plasma injection into sacroiliac joints. Follow-up was at 1-month, 3 months, and 6-months.

Results: “At one, three, and six months, both groups improved, however subjects who received steroid injections reported lower pain scores than subjects who received platelet rich plasma. Using categorical data, we observed significantly more responders (defined as pain scores which improved by 50% or more from baseline) at one and three months in the group that received steroids compared to the group that received platelet rich plasma. Conclusion: While both groups showed improvements in pain and function, the steroid group had significantly greater response and significantly more responders than the PRP group. “

In our office, we do not consider PRP a one shot treatment lower back pain. Often the treatment requires a peppering of numerous PRP injections into the back and more than one treatment occasion. Our process is described below.

PRP treatment for a soldier’s sacroiliac joint pain who was taking high-dose opioids

A case history was given in August 2020 in the journal Military medicine (5) of a soldier with sacroiliac joint pain. Here is a summary of this case:

“Back pain and its associated complications are of increasing importance among military members. The sacroiliac joint is a common source of chronic low back pain and functional disability. Many patients suffering from chronic low back pain utilize opioids (pain medications) to help control their symptoms. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used extensively to treat pain emanating from many different musculoskeletal origins; however, its use in the sacroiliac joint has been studied only on a limited basis.

The patient in this case report presented with chronic low back pain localized to the sacroiliac joint and subsequent functional disability managed with high-dose opioids. After failure of traditional treatments, she was given an ultrasound-guided PRP injection of the sacroiliac joint which drastically decreased her pain and disability and eventually allowed for complete opioid cessation. Her symptom relief continued one year after the injection. This case demonstrates the potential of ultrasound-guided PRP injections as a long-term treatment for chronic low back pain caused by SIJ dysfunction in military service members, which can also aid in the weaning of chronic opioid use.”

PRP treatment for a patient’s sacroiliac joint pain who has fluoroquinolone-related mitochondrial dysfunction

An  April 2022 case history (7) presents the case of using ultrasound-guided platelet-rich-plasma injections for reducing sacroiliac joint pain. In this case a  52-year-old Caucasian male with fluoroquinolone-related mitochondrial dysfunction  complained of severe SIJ pain. He was treated with two bilateral PRP ultrasound-guided injections at the sacroiliac level. PRP is a simple, efficient, and minimally invasive approach. After the first PRP injection, there was a considerable reduction of pain. The second PRP infiltration was performed after 2 weeks and in both cases no adverse events. At the 6-month follow-up evaluation, the patient showed good physical recovery, with the absence of pain.

Study: “Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections in the sacroiliac joint are effective at reducing disability and pain with most improvement seen within 4 weeks after injection and with sustained reduction at 6 months.”

An August 2020 study (6) investigated the efficacy of ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma in reducing sacroiliac joint disability and pain in 50 patients diagnosed with low back pain secondary to sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

“Platelet-rich plasma was injected into the sacroiliac joint under ultrasound guidance. Oswestry Disability Index and Numeric Rating Scale were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after injection.

  • Results: The mean reduction in Oswestry Disability Index and Numeric Rating Scale scores were significantly reduced at 6 months after injection compared with baseline values. All timeframes showed significant mean reduction compared with baseline, but overall improvement tapers off after 4 weeks with no statistically significant reduction from 4 weeks to 3 months or three to six months.
  • Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections in the sacroiliac joint are effective at reducing disability and pain with most improvement seen within 4 weeks after injection and with sustained reduction at 6 months.”

We usually ask the patients to return for more treatment if initial results were good and then being to taper off. In our years of experience and as documented in our medical research, we usually find multiple PRP sacroiliac joint injections to be more effective than a single treatment to treat sacroiliac joint dysfunction. But, people do vary, some may derive benefit from one treatment.

Medical literature references

1 Buchanan P, Vodapally S, Lee DW, Hagedorn JM, Bovinet C, Strand N, Sayed D, Deer T. Successful Diagnosis of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction. Journal of Pain Research. 2021;14:3135.
2 DePhillipo NN, Corenman DS, Strauch EL, Zalepa LK. Sacroiliac Pain: Structural Causes of Pain Referring to the SI Joint Region. Clinical spine surgery. 2018 Oct.
3 Singla V, Batra YK, Bharti N, Goni VG, Marwaha N. Steroid vs. platelet‐rich plasma in ultrasound‐guided sacroiliac joint injection for chronic low back pain. Pain Practice. 2017 Jul;17(6):782-91.
4 Chen AS, Solberg J, Smith C, Chi M, Lowder R, Christolias G, Singh JR. Intraarticular Platelet Rich Plasma vs Corticosteroid Injections for Sacroiliac Joint Pain—a Double Blinded, Randomized Clinical Trial. Pain Medicine. 2021 Nov 24.
5 Broadhead DY, Douglas HE, Bezjian Wallace LM, Wallace PJ, Tamura S, Morgan KC, Hemler DE. Use of Ultrasound-Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection of the Sacroiliac Joint as a Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain. Military medicine. 2020 Jul;185(7-8):e1312-7.
6 Wallace P, Wallace LB, Tamura S, Prochnio K, Morgan K, Hemler D. Effectiveness of ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections in relieving sacroiliac joint dysfunction. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2020 Aug 1;99(8):689-93.
7 de Sire A, Lippi L, Mezian K, Calafiore D, Pellegrino R, Mascaro G, Cisari C, Invernizzi M. Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich-plasma injections for reducing sacroiliac joint pain: A paradigmatic case report and literature review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2022 Apr 8. doi: 10.3233/BMR-210310. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35431228.
8 Chen AS, Solberg J, Smith C, Chi M, Lowder R, Christolias G, Singh JR. Intraarticular Platelet Rich Plasma vs Corticosteroid Injections for Sacroiliac Joint Pain-a Double Blinded, Randomized Clinical Trial. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.).:pnab332.
9 Young AC, Deng H, Opalacz A, Roth S, Filatava EJ, Fisher CA, de Sousa K, Mogren G, Chen L. A Retrospective Analysis of Sacroiliac Joint Pain Interventions: Intraarticular Steroid Injection and Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy. Pain Physician. 2022 Mar 1;25(2):E341-7.
10  Chandrupatla RS, Shahidi B, Bruno K, Chen JL. A Retrospective Study on Patient-Specific Predictors for Non-Response to Sacroiliac Joint Injections. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022 Jan;19(23):15519.
11 Hansen H, Manchikanti L, Simopoulos TT, et al. A systematic evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. Pain Physician. 2012 May;15(3):E247-78.
12 Chang MC, Ahn SH. The effect of intra-articular stimulation by pulsed radiofrequency on chronic sacroiliac joint pain refractory to intra-articular corticosteroid injection: A retrospective study. Medicine. 2017 Jun;96(26).
13 Chuang CW, Hung SK, Pan PT, Kao MC. Diagnosis and interventional pain management options for sacroiliac joint pain. Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Sep 16;31(4):207-210. doi: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_54_19. PMID: 31867247; PMCID: PMC6905244.
14 Falowski S, Sayed D, Pope J, Patterson D, Fishman M, Gupta M, Mehta P. A Review and Algorithm in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Pain. Journal of Pain Research. 2020;13:3337.
15 Chang E, Rains C, Ali R, Wines RC, Kahwati LC. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion for chronic sacroiliac joint pain: a systematic review. The Spine Journal. 2022 Jan 10.
16 Bina RW, Hurlbert RJ. Sacroiliac Fusion: Another “Magic Bullet” Destined for Disrepute. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America. 2017 Jul 31;28(3):313-20.
17 Casaroli G, Bassani T, Brayda-Bruno M, Luca A, Galbusera F. What do we know about the biomechanics of the sacroiliac joint and of sacropelvic fixation? A literature review. Medical Engineering & Physics. 2019 Dec 19.

9 Ellingson AM, Shaw MN, Giambini H, An KN. Comparative role of disc degeneration and ligament failure on functional mechanics of the lumbar spine. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2016;19(9):1009-18. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2015.1088524. Epub 2015 Sep 24. PMID: 26404463; PMCID: PMC4808500.
10 Marc Darrow, Brent Shaw BS. Treatment of Lower Back Pain with Bone Marrow Concentrate. Biomed J Sci&Tech Res 7(2)-2018. BJSTR. MS.ID.001461. DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.07.001461. 5/
11 An HS, Jenis LG, Vaccaro AR (1999) Adult spine trauma. In Beaty JH (Eds.). Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons pp. 653-671
12 Hammer N, Steinke H, Lingslebe U, Bechmann I, Josten C, Slowik V, Böhme J. Ligamentous influence in pelvic load distribution. The Spine Journal. 2013 Oct 1;13(10):1321-30.
17 Navani A, Manchikanti L, Albers SL, Latchaw RE, Sanapati J, Kaye AD, Atluri S, Jordan S, Gupta A, Cedeno D, Vallejo A. Responsible, Safe, and Effective Use of Biologics in the Management of Low Back Pain: American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Guidelines. Pain physician. 2019 Jan 1;22(1):S1-74. 3519

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